The Upanishads ( Post 5 )….By Reader

Dear Readers, Sharmila and EF,

This is the last part of the Brihad Aaranyak Upanishad. I have summarized a 350 page treatise into 5 pages and I cannot say that I have been able to disclose all the revelations in the book. I have merely highlighted the essentials in each article for your consideration. Each article is called a ‘Brahmana’

I hope it has been useful in some way.

All my love,


Chapter IV

Article 2

About the Soul…

It is not enough to know the scriptures for achieving peace of mind. Mere knowledge of Veda and Upanishads does not remove anxieties caused by death and suffering.

One must experience the truth of the contents. Life is embodied in form yet it exists in all directions and occupies space. Life that is experienced thus is like the pleasures experienced in food and affections. A fearless life is one that is this and yet unattached.


About enlightenment…

The Sun brightens the day of a person. The moon brightens the night. On a moonless night a fire can provide light.

In the realm of values, the sense-of-life, the Self, leads the person out of darkness.


About Sense-of-life…

Sense-of-life is the experience of the Soul that sustains Life even in a strange world and through sleep. It preserves knowledge and intelligence even when the perceptual senses are asleep.


About the state of deep sleep…

This is the state when reality ceases to exist. A father is not a father, a mother is not a mother, worlds are not worlds, God is not God, good is not good and evil is not evil. This is the absolute state of the Soul.


About the state of death…

Death is the state of the body that has abandoned all its subtle and gross functions including the intelligence.


Chapter IV

Article 4

About the transition at the moment of death…

At the moment of death all the senses withdraw their functions. They stop. The Mind and it’s intelligence sever from the states of active and passive consciousness. All the maya, instruments of worldliness cease. Life, the Brahma, is disembodied. It is released from all desires.

Among the dead, the wise and the righteous achieve immortality. Neither the good nor the evil can hold them back. They leave the universe. They merge with the unborn, the undying, the immortal, the Ajaatma.


Article 5

The entire Chapter II article 4 is repeated verbatim. This is the conversation between Yadnya Valkya and Maitreyi.


Article 6

The entire Chapter II article 6 is repeated verbatim. This is the line of teachers through 72 generations from Hrishi Parameshthin to Hrishi Pautimasya.


Chapter V

Article 1

About perfection…

Purnam adah, purnam idam, purnaat purnam udachyate |
Purnasya purnam adaya purnam eva vashishyate ||

… … … That is Perfect, this is Perfect; Perfection is borne in Perfection |
… … … Take perfection from perfection yet the perfection remains ||


Article 2

About the three ganas…

This article addresses three instructs for the three human traits (ganas). Daamyata for the Deva gana, Daanam for the Manushya gana and Dayadhvam for the Asura gana.

Daamyata is righteousness or proper conduct. Daanam is generosity as in giving and Dayadhvam is compassion.


Article 3

About the word Hridayam…

The heart is called Hridayam in Sanskrit. Hri is the synchronous vibration as in a symphony, Da is Daamya (conduct), Daan (giving) or Daya (compassion) and yam is an abode. Hence, Hridayam.


Article 4

About the singularity…

One conquers all the demons through the realization of this singularity, this one, this all pervasive Brahma.


Article 5

About Satyam…

Truth is called Satyam in Sanskrit. Sa is the prefix for good, ti is the untrue and yam is an abode. Satyam is the truth that subdues the untrue.

Satyam is the Truth like the orbits of the Sun. Satyam is the Truth of the Sun’s energy (purusha) that breathes life into the system.

Of this purusha, ‘Bhuh’ is the head, ‘Bhuvah’ is the trunk and svaha are the feet. (To me, this description sounds like that of a comet)


Article 6

About the nature of the mind…

The mind is in the nature of light, it becomes what it meditates on.


Article 7

About lightening…

Vidyut brahma ityahuh, vidaanad vidyut, vidyatyenam paapamanah… this lightening that scatters darkness is in the nature of brahma.


Article 8

About the natures of the voice…

There are four gunas in the Voice. Two of these are the deva gunas, one is the manushya guna and one that of the ancestors. The two deva gunas are the svaaha-kaar and the vasat-kaar, the hanta-kaar is a manushya guna and the deep throated svadha-kaar is that of the ancestors.


Article 9

About Vaishvanara…

There is a warmth in the life of each that is universal. It is called the Vaishvanara. This warmth is the same that digests the food as well as enables the ears to hear.


Article 10

About after-death…

The Person, the soul, the purusha, departs and lives for an eternity (one life of Hiranya garbha) without grief or attachments.


Article 11

About austerities..

The most trying austerities a person suffers in life are those in a terminal illness, carrying a corpse and cremation.


Article 12

About the association of Food and life…

Food decays without life; Life recedes without food. This world like a union of the two appears to be in perpetual motion. What good or bad can come out of this? Food is vi, Life is Raam. The two together are viraam – complete.


Article 13

About the association of Breath and Life…

Breath is the Hymn (Rig), Practice (Yaju), Rhythm (Sama) and Rule (Kshatra) of Life…


Article 14

About the sacred rhythm of Life…

Among all meters of reciting, the Gayatri is considered the most sacred. It consists of three (tri) sets of eight syllables each.

An aesthetic representation of all essential influences in life are given thus:

Bhumi (Planet), Antariksham (Space), Dyau (Beyond) are eight syllables;

Richa (Hymns: Rig), Yajumsi (Rituals: Yajur), Samani (Chants: Sama) are another eight syllables;

Praana (In-Breath), Apaana (Out-breath) and Vyaana (Diffused breath) are another eight syllables.

The Gayatri mantra, when recited, reminds a learned person of all the essential influences in life.


Article 15

About the face of Truth…

This article is a prayer to a hidden Creator, the Absolute One, the Formless, the Featureless. The seeker wishes to see the Creator in a form that Intelligence can perceive.


Chapter 6

Article 1

About the supremacy of breath in the sustenance of life…

This article is a fairy tale conversation between various parts of the body and how they can live without each other. However, when it is the turn of Breath to be tested for absence, all the parts immediately object and the supremacy of the Breath is acknowledged.

One thing to note is the source of the vital life-sustaining breath. It is stated in the article that this vital breath that sustains life is released by water. Hence, wise men sip water before and after meals.


Article 2

About The Mother, The Father and Moksha…

This Earth here is the Mother. The unknown beyond space is the Father. There are two deaths to a life. One that is retained by the Mother, and one that merges with the Father. Only one occurs at a time. This is Karma.


Article 3

This article gives mantras for attaining wishes.


Article 4

This article describes the ritual for procreation.


Article 5

This article lists all the generations of teachers from Praja-pati to Hrishi Pautimashi.

End of Brihad Aaranyaka Upanishad.


153 Responses to “The Upanishads ( Post 5 )….By Reader”

  1. Thank you Sharmila,

    All I can say is:

    Purnam adah, purnam idam, purnaat purnam udachyate |
    Purnasya purnam adaya purnam eva vashishyate ||

    … … … That is Perfect, this is Perfect; Perfection is borne in Perfection |
    … … … Take perfection from perfection yet the perfection remains ||

    And to that if I may add: Perfection is also simple.

  2. Anand Khare Says:

    Hello Reader,

    Thanks for this series on Upnishads. I have only heard that Upnishads are treasure of knowledge. Experienced it for the first time.


    • Thank you Anand,

      It is indeed a treasure and I was only able to highlight the main content.

      Thanks to Sharmila who allowed me to test this on her blog. I had no idea how it will appear! I am more an extempore speaker or writer. Not professional at all.

      Hope I can do justice to some more of them.

  3. Earth is like mother…and father is an unknown & away beyond the space…

  4. MonaLisa,

    I can only guess why.

    Earth is personified as Mother because she is the resource for sustennce of life.

    The unknown beyond is personified as Father because that is the source of all creation.

    PS: I am not getting RSS on the IE and America is not Online (AOL not working probably buried in the snow or eclpised with the moon!)

    So bear with me if I am a bit slower than usual. (How slower can that be!?)

    • I get that concept of Creator and Sustainer….yet my Q is why The Father-The creator is imagined to be far far away beyond the space..?

      What about Trinity then if Earth is The Sustainer…?

      • Because the Creator cannot be in space and create it at the same time.

        The Trinity are part of the universe. Brahma, Vishnu, Mahesh are deities of Life here and now. Brahma is the Self. Vishnu is the preserver. Shiva destroys evil.

        The Trinity exists in each one of us in features. Brahma invents. Vishnu loves. Shiva destroys.

        In the chakra tantra. Shiva’s linga and the snake form the Kundalini. The Pelvic region is the linga and the snake is the chakra that coils around the trunk upto the crown of the head.

        Vishnu is in the heart and all the feelings and emotions.

        Brahma is content of the consciousness that controls intelligence.

        Every person, including you, are a living manifestation of the Trinity.

  5. At the moment of death all the senses withdraw their functions. They stop. The Mind and it’s intelligence sever from the states of active and passive consciousness. All the maya, instruments of worldliness cease. Life, the Brahma, is disembodied. It is released from all desires.

    Among the dead, the wise and the righteous achieve immortality. Neither the good nor the evil can hold them back. They leave the universe. They merge with the unborn, the undying, the immortal, the Ajaatma.

    This is hard to believe…
    How all the desires been released..automatically..?

    • MonaLisa,

      I read it as Life is released from desires.

      To me, it means all desires are associated with the body and the mind. The Soul desires nothing.

      • Soul desires nothing….It happens on the level of Mind and Intellect….then…
        Do they all separate when Death of a Body occurs..? If they separate where do they go..?
        If soul remains unaffected then how the rebirth takes place..?

      • Lakshmi Jag Says:

        MonaLisa and Reader:

        I think it is true, death releases all desires. I am going to share something very personal here. I lost my sister to Cancer about 14 years ago, she was 46 with three children. She absolutely knew when she was going, she told my father the day before she died that she was supposed to leave the day before but she came back as her son was holding her but now the time had come for her to go. She did not cry, she was resigned to it and she did not have any regrets. She left the day she said she was going, giving us all a closure.

      • Lakshmi – Thanks for sharing this. Most touched. Death is intuitive I guess, more intuitive than life.

      • MonaLisa,

        The intellect and the mind are functions of the body. They die with the body.

        The soul is the cause of the life of the body. Once the soul is separated, the body chakras stop altogether. For instance breathing stops even if all the associated parts are intact. Brain loses consciousness even if all the parts of the brain are intact. The heart stops beating even if nothing is wrong with it.

      • Lakshmi,

        Sorry to hear about your sister.

        I have seen this state. A young electrical engineer on my site suffered crush injuries when a wild camel jumped on his car.

        I was with him in the ambulance all the way till we reached the hospital. He was barely able to speak. All he kept saying was, “Sir, I am going. Tell my family.” He was not happy or sad or anxious. Just staring at me all the way.

  6. Lakshmi Jag Says:

    Reader: Thank you for giving us this simple introduction to the Upanishads. I have read interpretations and now I see how we all bring our experiences into the interpretation of the text. My interpretation of Purnamadha is different than what is given here. I like Article 3 of Chapter V..Hridayam. How simple and how true…thanks a lot again

    • Lakshmi,

      Thank you. I have never done anything like this before. So far I would only quote something relevant to a subject. Never thought I could do the whole thing as a single theme!

      About Purnamadha… my interpretation is based on the conservation of all energy and matter. Matter and energy are neither created nor destroyed. They merely change forms. The total content of teh universe remains constant.

      Perfection of the universe is a given constant. Take away perfection from perfection and yet what we get remains perfect.

  7. Laxmi,
    As per my understanding one can withdraw himself/ herself
    when death is near by or suffering from an incurable condition…yet the desire accrued through out the lifespan does not get demolished in a split second…there must be some mechanism working towards it….may be unknown to us …however nothing dies down on its own…especially Desire…

    • MonaLisa,

      What you say is mentioned in many other upanishads including Katha and Isa. That Karma carries forward in each birth. Krishna says that too. There was never a time when I was not here or you were not here. There won’t be a time we will not be here.

      In Buddhism, desires are taken to the next birth.

      • Reader,
        “there was never a time when I was not here or you were not. There won’t be a time we will not be here.”

        Is that the reason…some ppl we don’t like at very first sight or in very first meeting…!? The same with our likings or the opinions about some unknowns…That our past life experiences with that particular one send messages via our subconscious mind or some other factors play role into it..?
        On a light note….Where did all these extras come from to over populate this Earth…!? 🙂

      • Reader,
        Why only in Buddhism…!? Indian scriptures like “Bhagavad Gita” ….”Bhagavatam” etc say the same thing if I am not mistaken….
        Buddhism….believes in ‘Nirvana’….the same thing is ‘Moksha’ in Veda/upanishad…concept is slightly different though…I heard…
        What I believe is Buddha read & learned from the same scriptures and set rules and regulations the way a common man could understand and grasp…the idea…

      • Reader,
        Hmm….Tell me how are you going to meet me in next life…!? 🙂

      • Don’t scare me. I already have good reasons for not wanting re-birth.

        We must meet in this birth and finish the business.

        Kal karen so aaj kar… tomorrows task, do it today

      • Buddha’s interpretations are slightly different. Instead of desires going forth in the form of Karma, he treats them separately like a baggage. To attain Nirvana he believes in renunciation of desires.

      • The extras that you see must be the extinct life forms graduated to humans. 🙂

        According to the Bhagawatam, there are a fixed number of life-forms that are inter-convertible.

        Buddha claims that he has been many animals in previous births.

        So, you are right. Something clicks among people.

  8. Reader,
    Of this purusha, ‘Bhuh’ is the head, ‘Bhuvah’ is the trunk and svaha are the feet. (To me, this description sounds like that of a comet)

    Lol….funny…! Where did comet come from into this…!!? 🙂

    • Oh, thats in the bracket, my footnote. The whole verse sounds like the description of a comet. A burning head (Bhuh) and long trunk (Bhuvah) and streaming tail like feet (Svaha). The cosmic purusha brings life to earth in this form!

      Hey, don’t kill the messenger baby!

      • Lol…Reader,
        Did they/you mean ‘sperm’ considering it ‘Comet’…?! The cosmic ‘Purusha’ bringing life to Earth in this form…!?

        Lol…! Depends on what kind of message…the messenger brings in…! Shall he be spared or…beheaded…! 🙂

      • The head is on fire! Be-head that and it will cause havoc all by itself!

        Yes, could be a sperm too. But how could that carry cosmic energy? Or may be it does..

        Who knows…

      • Reader,
        Tell me…Why not..!? What kind of energy ‘Sperm’ carry then..if not cosmic…?!

      • I don’t know. I think sperms carry genetic information. Thats all. One in many millions gives birth to a off-spring. So, if each one is carrying a soul, that would be a collossal waste.

        But that really is ‘Who Knows…’ for me.

      • So at which point does the soul transfer itself into the embryo, or does the “chosen” sperm carry it? Or does the egg carry it?

      • From what I have read, not just in our scriptures but even in Islam and Buddhism, the Soul or Life, is ‘delivered’ to the Zygote by angels. It is not ‘carried’ by the egg or the sperm.

        Not all eggs become chickens. Not all sperms lead to procreation.

        Really, I am beat on this! I wish I knew how this happens. Even the cloning process does not capture this moment! I was seeing a BBC documentary on dolly the sheep and the were technically perfect in their procedures. But where it came to how it became alive, they had no clue.

      • Well, I am yet to hear of the mystery of life being solved.

  9. MonaLisa,

    Re-birth is a difficult subject. It is addressed in many ways in all the scriptures.

    Re-birth depends entirely on Karma according to some brahmanas. The desires and wishes are not in form or feature. They are carried by Karma.

    In the natal charts the yoni is often considered an indicator. It was Atharvan and Bhrigu who complied an entire treatise on Re-birth.

    It is described in Bhrigu Samhita and in some parts of the Atharva Angirasa.

    Shall transcribe some of it for you some time.

  10. May be I can share this.

    When I recite some of the mantras, I also pray that I hope there is no re-birth. I do not want to be born again anywhere in any form.

    I want complete moksha.

    • Reader,
      What is the Fun in Moksha…? The Fun begins here…and it is all here…! Up there …no Fun…!
      I definitely would love to take more chances on this and come back to play,learn and enjoy…the new game….everytime…till I am ready for Moksha…
      There are two types of ppl ask for Moksha…the tired ones-tired of this world. and its vagaries…and the other lot is the Contented one…which category do you fall into..?

      • I respect everything there is here and around. But I don’t want any of it.

      • Reader,
        Quite a diplomatic answer….either you have plenty of whatever is around and you have achieved whatever you wanted to or you are just tired of trying for it anymore….but in my opinion it is not the question really… whether you want it or not…
        If you really are contented and completely detached then …you sure will not meet me in my next life… ‘cos I am going to be right here….no second thought about it… 🙂

  11. I am unable to keep up with the net. AOL is offline. No mails either. No RSS on the IE.

    Shall check again after some time.

  12. Reader,
    That’s OK….You could have other million reasons not to be on net…
    Good Night……….

    • Good eve,

      Million? I usually don’t have more than one… 😦

      • I don’t know. I think I said something that put her off. I am a stupid idiot. Hope she realizes that.

        Knowing scirptures or poetry doesn’t make me divine or ideal. I am just a normal person who makes abnormal mistakes.

      • Sharmila,

        I guess she may return to comment when you write your post.

        My kind of gibberish bores some people, mainly:

        Some who already know more about the subject than what is in the text, and

        Some who are smart enough to know that it is not necessary.

      • Reader,

        I belong to neither category. I am NOT bored!

        I am someone who got flummoxed by the plethora of information…

        I am not put off by anything. I am just… hard put to come up with anything…invigorating…

        Lemme see… What can I ask?


        You are not just a Reader now. You are a Writer as well. So…can I call you… Rider??

        😛 🙂

        I’ll be back later…


      • Aishwarya,

        What took you so long? I was about to start posting haunting songs to call out.

        Rider? Namade aalalle?

      • Aaanallo!

  13. Sharmila,

    There is a spelling mistake in the first para of the post.

    Word highlight should be highlighted.

  14. Reader – I loved this series. I have referred to the five posts several times over. One day when I have it in me, I should make an attempt to read the text with your references in the back drop. thanks for educating me.

    • Sharmila,

      Thanks not accepted. I enjoy this as much as you do.

      And I am already on to the next text. Should do the first dispatch in a day or two.

  15. Reader,
    Now that “finish the business” sounds kind of scary… to me… 😦

    • Scary? Why? Sharmila will be there as an umpire. She was a referree in the WWF before she became a Chartered Accountant.

      • And Sharmila carries a shot gun. She doesn’t warn or push the fighters away. She shoots the nearest one. 🙂

      • Reader,
        Now that’s a cheating…Referee is not allowed to shoot players…Grrr…!

      • Thats why I said I’ll hide behind her. To the best of my knowledge Sharmila does not have eyes in the back. So if she cannot see me she cannot shoot me!

        Clever, eh?

      • I am an owl, my head rotates far enough.

      • MonaLisa,

        Change of venue and time…

        We must meet in broad daylight… on the pitch in the Chinnaswamy Cricket Stadium, BLR.

      • Sharmila,

        The Anil Kumble Road is covered by trees and shades. So also is the Rahul Dravid stand.

        Hmm.. I am searching for a spot that can make you miss your shot! 🙂

  16. Reader,
    Oh…Ok…Ok…! wrestling would be good… 🙂
    I thought you are in “Good,Bad & Ugly” kinda mood…! And I have become a vegan lately…U know..! 🙂

    • When did you become a vegan? Why?

      The humorist Scott Adams became vegan a few years ago. His descriptions were hilarious. He was dreaming of headless chickens talking to him for many days. 🙂

  17. Lol… I don’t think there is something like ‘Chosen One’ in the case of ‘Sperms”….it is more like first come first…served basis and survival of the fittest kinda thing…

  18. Anand Khare Says:

    The upnishads post is very heavy. Need some lighter moments,

  19. Sharmila, Aishwarya, MonaLisa, Lakhsmi, Shubha, Anand, Saurabh and EF

    The Vedas and Upanishads cover only codes of morality and metaphysics. But we realize that they are all firmly grounded in reality when we study them along with the scientific research of the same period.

    Here is a glimpse of the ‘who’s who’ of that period in different sciences:


    Born in 476 CE in Kusumpur ( Bihar ), Aryabhatt’s intellectual brilliance remapped the boundaries of mathematics and astronomy. In 499 CE, at the age of 23, he wrote a text on astronomy and an unparallel treatise on mathematics called “Aryabhatiyam.” He formulated the process of calculating the motion of planets and the time of eclipses. Aryabhatt was the first to proclaim that the earth is round, it rotates on its axis, orbits the sun and is suspended in space – 1000 years before Copernicus published his heliocentric theory. He is also acknowledged for calculating p (Pi) to four decimal places: 3.1416 and the sine table in trigonometry. Centuries later, in 825 CE, the Arab mathematician, Mohammed Ibna Musa credited the value of Pi to the Indians, “This value has been given by the Hindus.” And above all, his most spectacular contribution was the concept of zero without which modern computer technology would have been non-existent. Aryabhatt was a colossus in the field of mathematics.

    BHASKARACHARYA II (1114-1183 CE)


    Born in the obscure village of Vijjadit (Jalgaon) in Maharastra, Bhaskaracharya’ s work in Algebra, Arithmetic and Geometry catapulted him to fame and immortality. His renowned mathematical works called “Lilavati” and “Bijaganita” are considered to be unparalled and a memorial to his profound intelligence. Its translation in several languages of the world bear testimony to its eminence. In his treatise ” Siddhant Shiromani ” he writes on planetary positions, eclipses, cosmography, mathematical techniques and astronomical equipment. In the ” Surya Siddhant ” he makes a note on the force of gravity: “Objects fall on earth due to a force of attraction by the earth. Therefore, the earth, planets, constellations, moon, and sun are held in orbit due to this attraction.” Bhaskaracharya was the first to discover gravity, 500 years before Sir Isaac Newton . He was the champion among mathematicians of ancient and medieval India . His works fired the imagination of Persian and European scholars, who through research on his works earned fame and popularity.


    As the founder of ” Vaisheshik Darshan “- one of six principal philosophies of India – Acharya Kanad was a genius in philosophy. He is believed to have been born in Prabhas Kshetra near Dwarika in Gujarat . He was the pioneer expounder of realism, law of causation and the atomic theory. He has classified all the objects of creation into nine elements, namely: earth, water, light, wind, ether, time, space, mind and soul. He says, “Every object of creation is made of atoms which in turn connect with each other to form molecules.” His statement ushered in the Atomic Theory for the first time ever in the world, nearly 2500 years before John Dalton . Kanad has also described the dimension and motion of atoms and their chemical reactions with each other. The eminent historian, T.N. Colebrook , has said, “Compared to the scientists of Europe , Kanad and other Indian scientists were the global masters of this field.”

    NAGARJUNA (100 CE)

    He was an extraordinary wizard of science born in the nondescript village of Baluka in Madhya Pradesh . His dedicated research for twelve years produced maiden discoveries and inventions in the faculties of chemistry and metallurgy. Textual masterpieces like ” Ras Ratnakar ,” “Rashrudaya” and “Rasendramangal” are his renowned contributions to the science of chemistry. Where the medieval alchemists of England failed, Nagarjuna had discovered the alchemy of transmuting base metals into gold. As the author of medical books like “Arogyamanjari” and “Yogasar,” he also made significant contributions to the field of curative medicine. Because of his profound scholarliness and versatile knowledge, he was appointed as Chancellor of the famous University of Nalanda . Nagarjuna’s milestone discoveries impress and astonish the scientists of today.



    Acharya Charak has been crowned as the Father of Medicine. His renowned work, the ” Charak Samhita “, is considered as an encyclopedia of Ayurveda. His principles, diagoneses, and cures retain their potency and truth even after a couple of millennia. When the science of anatomy was confused with different theories in Europe , Acharya Charak revealed through his innate genius and enquiries the facts on human anatomy, embryology, pharmacology, blood circulation and diseases like diabetes, tuberculosis, heart disease, etc. In the ” Charak Samhita ” he has described the medicinal qualities and functions of 100,000 herbal plants. He has emphasized the influence of diet and activity on mind and body. He has proved the correlation of spirituality and physical health contributed greatly to diagnostic and curative sciences. He has also prescribed and ethical charter for medical practitioners two centuries prior to the Hippocratic oath. Through his genius and intuition, Acharya Charak made landmark contributions to Ayurvedal. He forever remains etched in the annals of history as one of the greatest and noblest of rishi-scientists.


    A genius who has been glowingly recognized in the annals of medical science. Born to sage Vishwamitra, Acharya Sudhrut details the first ever surgery procedures in ” Sushrut Samhita ,” a unique encyclopedia of surgery. He is venerated as the father of plastic surgery and the science of anesthesia. When surgery was in its infancy in Europe , Sushrut was performing Rhinoplasty (restoration of a damaged nose) and other challenging operations. In the ” Sushrut Samhita ,” he prescribes treatment for twelve types of fractures and six types of dislocations. His details on human embryology are simply amazing. Sushrut used 125 types of surgical instruments including scalpels, lancets, needles, Cathers and rectal speculums; mostly designed from the jaws of animals and birds. He has also described a number of stitching methods; the use of horse’s hair as thread and fibers of bark. In the ” Sushrut Samhita ,” and fibers of bark. In the ” Sushrut Samhita ,” he details 300 types of operations. The ancient Indians were the pioneers in amputation, caesarian and cranial surgeries. Acharya Sushrut was a giant in the arena of medical science.

    VARAHAMIHIR (499-587 CE)


    renowned astrologer and astronomer who was honored with a special decoration and status as one of the nine gems in the court of King Vikramaditya in Avanti ( Ujjain ). Varahamihir’ s book “panchsiddhant” holds a prominent place in the realm of astronomy. He notes that the moon and planets are lustrous not because of their own light but due to sunlight. In the ” Bruhad Samhita ” and ” Bruhad Jatak ,” he has revealed his discoveries in the domains of geography, constellation, science, botany and animal science. In his treatise on botanical science, Varamihir presents cures for various diseases afflicting plants and trees. The rishi-scientist survives through his unique contributions to the science of astrology and astronomy.



    The Science of Yoga is one of several unique contributions of India to the world. It seeks to discover and realize the ultimate Reality through yogic practices. Acharya Patanjali , the founder, hailed from the district of Gonda (Ganara) in Uttar Pradesh . He prescribed the control of prana (life breath) as the means to control the body, mind and soul. This subsequently rewards one with good health and inner happiness. Acharya Patanjali ‘s 84 yogic postures effectively enhance the efficiency of the respiratory, circulatory, nervous, digestive and endocrine systems and many other organs of the body. Yoga has eight limbs where Acharya Patanjali shows the attainment of the ultimate bliss of God in samadhi through the disciplines of: yam, niyam, asan, pranayam, pratyahar, dhyan and dharna. The Science of Yoga has gained popularity because of its scientific approach and benefits. Yoga also holds the honored place as one of six philosophies in the Indian philosophical system. Acharya Patanjali will forever be remembered and revered as a pioneer in the science of self-discipline, happiness and self-realization.



    Acharya Bharadwaj had a hermitage in the holy city of Prayag and was an ordent apostle of Ayurveda and mechanical sciences. He authored the ” Yantra Sarvasva ” which includes astonishing and outstanding discoveries in aviation science, space science and flying machines. He has described three categories of flying machines: 1.) One that flies on earth from one place to another. 2.) One that travels from one planet to another. 3.) And One that travels from one universe to another. His designs and descriptions have impressed and amazed aviation engineers of today. His brilliance in aviation technology is further reflected through techniques described by him:
    1.) Profound Secret: The technique to make a flying machine invisible through the application of sunlight and wind force.
    2.) Living Secret: The technique to make an invisible space machine visible through the application of electrical force.
    3.) Secret of Eavesdropping: The technique to listen to a conversation in another plane.
    4.) Visual Secrets: The technique to see what’s happening inside another plane.
    Through his innovative and brilliant discoveries, Acharya Bharadwaj has been recognized as the pioneer of aviation technology.



    Celebrated as the founder of Sankhya philosophy, Acharya Kapil is believed to have been born in 3000 BCE to the illustrious sage Kardam and Devhuti. He gifted the world with the Sankhya School of Thought. His pioneering work threw light on the nature and principles of the ultimate Soul (Purusha), primal matter (Prakruti) and creation. His concept of transformation of energy and profound commentaries on atma, non-atma and the subtle elements of the cosmos places him in an elite class of master achievers – incomparable to the discoveries of other cosmologists. On his assertion that Prakruti, with the inspiration of Purusha, is the mother of cosmic creation and all energies, he contributed a new chapter in the science of cosmology.

    • By ‘period’ I mean ancient. The olny one in this list who is close to the Vedic period is Kapil.

    • Reader,
      In ancient world Indians/Aryans/Dravidian-or may be that weren’t the names then….never mind… have progressed like anything…
      Nalanda was the first University…most probably and so on…
      No one denies that now…that Art,culture,all branches of science,medicine,veda,upnishad… etc etc…were found and developed by the civilizations then….
      That was thousands years ago….what about now…?
      One can’t live in past and feel great about it…all the time…doing nothing…
      I believe its a shame that with such a great ancestral lineage….citizens of today don’t either feel much proud about it or find themselves capable to take up a challenge to outshine others…lol….in one thing they definitely can outshine many…The Corruption… 🙂

      • MonaLisa,

        Scientists like these and Einstein, Neils Bohr and others were such great thinkers that they often left the obvious for people like me to say.

        Religion and science are two sides of the same coin.

        Religion is the source and inspiration of scientific discrimination.

        Both of them rely heavily on philosophy to come up with a hypothesis and theory.

        Both are introspective and critical of their own assruance processes.

        They are two arms of the same body.

  20. Sharmila,

    I am here…and fine… Hope you are well too…

    Thank you for remembering and enquiring…



  21. Reader,

    Chapter IV Art 4 says, “Among the dead, the wise and the righteous achieve immortality. ”

    What happens to the rest?

    I visited a site to read more on the same. It said that they reach the earth and become food. Or they become insects.

    I should have stopped right there. But no. I went on reading…

    I am glad Chapter 6 Art 4 is only a line here.

    There it says, If a woman does not yield her body, give her presents. If she still is unyielding, strike her with a stick or his hand.


    I liked your translations and interpretations much better than what I read there.


    In which chapter does the shloka “Asato ma sadgamaya” come?

    • Aishwarya,

      I think you have made a good point. Its necessary to be cautious about interpretations.

      I read the text and refer literal meanings from dictionaries. I do the esoteric, philosophical, ethical or metaphysical evaluation myself. I do not accept even the best of the best to decide for me.


      Tamaso ma jyotirgamaya, asato ma sadgamaya… truth removes the untrue as darkness is removed by light…

      I can’t place where it occurs in the Upanishad.

      I can quote Krishna from the Gita without referring:

      Na-asato vidyate bhavo; na-abhaavo vidyate satah!

      … … … Untrue does not appear real; Unreal does not appear true!

    • I steered away from attempting a comment on that section. Its not woman-friendly.

    • This is a glimpse of the Upanishad. I did not translate the entire book.

      There are rights abuses and ugly things in all books.

      Where does evil go? The books say they become some less dignified life-forms.

      I skip that because we are not speaking to the evil in anyone.

      But good thing you note that – There is no lucifer or devil in hell in this book who runs a barbecue shop of roasted souls…

    • I definitely do not support superstition and witch-craft. There are many verses that can be interpreted as superstitious rituals.

      I am sorry if I disappointed you. But I don’t relish the idea of dwelling on the darker side. Take the good. Leave the bad.

      Thats also one of the reasons I have never discussed Tantrism. I have read enough about it to write my own version on it! But for what?

      • Reader,

        This comment isnt addressed to me, but if you mean I am disappointed… No, I am not.

        You have not only translated it for us, you were thoughtful enough to make necessary omissions and make it
        woman-friendly. Thank you.

        I am religious but not to the point of blindly following what is taught and what is in the books. I was perplexed by the rituals…thats all…

        The power of volition is ours. We have the ability to choose.

        The line I love in your translation here is:
        “In the realm of values, the sense-of-life, the Self, leads the person out of darkness.”

        This, I will always remember.

      • You didn’t notice. The entire string is in reply to you.

        The sense-of-life thing sounds parallel to the tamaso ma jyotirgamaya.. but I am sure it is not the shloka… that was a dialogue between a Yadnya Valkya and someone…

        I am aging rather fast… forget my own name next… signs of anxiety disorders… or perhaps cognitive behavoral disorders? Do you think I’ll ever develop… wachamacalit… agora-phobia?

      • Believe me, I was not “thoughtful enough” to omit anything on purpose… I simply ignored it… I was reading and looking for only what is meaningful and virtuous… and I did not skip any chapters and articles in the book… every para and verse is visited…

      • It says the shloka is mentioned in 1.3.28 of Brihad Aaranyaka…

        No reason to panic over disorders and CBT. You are, after all, only 9!

        Some of the translations are a bit confusing for me.
        For eg, In Malayalam, Antariksham is atmosphere. Something like mahol in Urdu perhaps…
        Prakriti is Nature.
        Purusha seems to be used interchangeably with soul and the cosmic male…dont know how to interpret it…

      • 1:3:28? Let me see…

        Hello.. that is a quotation from the Yajurveda.. In the Upanishad, it is quoted by the host of a ritual in 1:3:28..

        Asat-o ma sat gamaya, tamas-o ma jyoti gamaya, Mrityu ma amrit gamaya

        Translit: Untruth No Truth Gone, Darkness No Light Gone, Death No Imperishable Gone

        It is most commonly interpreted as: From untruth to truth, darkness to light, death to immortality.

        My interpretation of the whole line is: Untruth does not remove Truth, Darkness does not remove light and death does not remove the imperishable.


        I read the source of the shloka from here.

        But I dont know where 1.3.28 is.

      • Aishwarya,

        The translation in the wiki link you have given is the one that is most common and I said in the reply above.

        Asat-o ma sat gamaya, tamas-o ma jyoti gamaya, Mrityu ma amrit gamaya

        Translit: Untruth No Truth Gone, Darkness No Light Gone, Death No Imperishable Gone

        It is most commonly interpreted as: From untruth to truth, darkness to light, death to immortality.

        My interpretation of the whole line is : Untruth does not remove Truth, Darkness does not remove light and death does not remove the imperishable.

        Did you want me to copy paste from all over the web?

        I am old fashioned. I use a hard-back dictionary and write my own thoughts. My whole purpose of studying these along with many other subjects is to discover what I believe – not what others believe.

        Do you think that is too selfish?

      • Aishwarya,

        Its good to keep learning something new. But what will you say to a surgeon if he says he is happy he has learnt something new every time his patients die on the operation table?

  22. Aishwarya, and Sharmila, all EF and other readers,

    I am sorry for this whole exercise. Aishwarya is right. The Vedas and Upanishads are considered by many readers as Hindu Relgious texts.

    I had made it amply clear that I have never done this before. I study this stuff for my own sake.

    It is a crime under IPC to hurt anyones religious feelings.

    I apologize to all. We’ll not see such things from me on the blog again,


    • What did I say?


      • Aishwarya,

        This is what you said:

        You have not only translated it for us, you were thoughtful enough to make necessary omissions and make it woman-friendly. Thank you.

        I am religious but not to the point of blindly following what is taught and what is in the books. I was perplexed by the rituals…thats all…

        This how I understood:

        Reader, you are omitting parts just to please others. Your translations are different from my religious beliefs but I don’t take anything blindly. So I am okay. But others may not be. I was perplexed by the ritual of beating a woman for sex. I read it in another translation somewhere else but you skipped that here on purpose.

        I replied to you that:

        I did not skip anything. I went through every para and verse of the book. But I was looking for only good things. I ignored the rituals. I briefed each article in each chapter in an order.

      • The word should have been theosophical (not religious).
        This word is new to me and did not strike me at the time of typing out the comment.

        I am sorry my eagerness to share what I read and my lack of proper vocabulary has caused hurt.

      • But why would I omit or commit stuff just to please the readers? I have quoted what I found worth quoting.

        And 350 pages is impossible to type and present word on word.

        This is only a glance at the edifice through a window!

        I’m sorry I shot off in anger, but please do not doubt my integrity. I am sincere in everything I do.

    • Reader,
      I strongly disagree on this with you…
      I believe you should continue and those who has difference of opinions or trouble understanding the core idea…an abstract should ask more Q or try to learn it…
      I don’t think all have access and ability to understand scriptures…
      Most are engaged in merely rituals…which might be only the part of the process or may be not….
      Knowledge and Rituals…How far they go hand in hand…i have no knowledge or idea of it…
      I think you shouldn’t stop…

      • MonaLisa,

        There are no copyrights on knowledge or learning. But I don’t want to hurt anyone if I can avoid it.

        I won’t stop. I am already a 100 words into the next one. But I’ll leave it to Sharmila to decide if she wants to put it up or not.

        You are right. Ask questions or discuss. Thats the whole idea. But I’ll answer only for my own interpretations. I don’t know why others wrote what they did on another website or in another book on the same subject.

        My request is, please enjoy the subject – not my clumsiness.

  23. Sharmila,

    I am sorry for the misunderstanding caused. I hope you will read all my comments on this post and delete/edit any of those that you feel may have hurt anyone’s feelings.


    • Well, you hurt my feelings. And I think its okay to say it, if we are friends.

      You read Shankara and Swami Nityanand’s translation about beating women with a stick for having sex and compared mine to them.

      I am not unaware of other interpretations. I know them. Many are gross and tantrik. I am not going to mention them even in comparison. They don’t deserve that attention. MonaLisa even intuitively asked about tantrism once. I left it aside.

      I have not changed the meaning of the words in my understanding. But their sense can always be taken as rationally as we want. There is no need to discuss my personal choices. Let us discuss the subject.

      I hope you’ll take this sportingly. I speak to you as a friend. So, don’t disappear or stop commenting because of this.

    • Duh…what’s this Aish.,I am lost..dont worry about anything!

  24. Reader,
    Now stop hiding behind Sharmila…! I need your decision now…Aye or Nay…!? I will count just 3….

  25. 1……..2………..3…………..Ok…..bye…!

  26. MonaLisa, Aishwarya, Sharmila,

    I keep repeating again and again. I do not see anything religious in these texts. There was no Hindu or Muslim or Christian or Buddha when these were written.

    The idea of religion spoils the fun of discovering things. I have said it many times that it is not necessary to read these books. It is not important. I am not preaching or teaching. Thats not my job. I am not a reformer. I am not a missionary.

    I do not wish to make friends and influence people like Dale Carnegie.

    I like studying these subjects, mainly philosophy, metaphysics, ethics, virtues, epistemology and values. I am not into religion.

    I hope I am making myself clear.

    I am not a Hindu, Muslim, Christian or Buddhist. I am not religious.

    Its 0245 AM… I need to sleep… Good Night…

  27. Daily Report:

    Was interviewed on the phone by a company in Houma, Houston, US.

    Question (Lady with a slight fil tone): What position are you working in?

    My answer: I am in a position where I don’t need a reason to stay at home. I need a reason to attend the office!

    (Slight giggle at the other end)

    Lady: We’ll list you among our contacts for …..

    My answer: Does that mean I have a job?

    Lady: We’ll use your services from where you are.

    My answer: Thats nice.


    What an ideal world this is for anyone who doesn’t like work! 🙂

  28. This is for Aishwarya and Anand,

  29. This is for Sharmila,

  30. This is for MonaLisa,

  31. This is for Reader,

  32. This one for the road…

  33. Ab aisi tasalli rehne do…

  34. Hmm.. How expensive is it that someone has to take mortgage to buy it…!? You must be kiddin’….
    Well…! How much would a lb. of carrots cost..? Can I borrow that amount from you..? You could be my Bank in India…! hehehe…. 🙂

  35. Good Morning….
    Thank you….
    Where is your next post..?

  36. Sharmila,

    Please see mail.

  37. Sharmila,

    Where are you?

  38. Sharmila, Aishwarya, MonaLisa, Lakshmi, Shubha, Anand, Saurabh, Ninad and all EF,

    I have opened a blog section on my book site – “The Creator’s Testimony”. The blog page is not open to comments. Its only to have my stuff on one page where it can be read at one go.

    Please do visit:

    PS: Sharmila – Have you seen the mail? Where are you?

    • The booksite is frozen. There was an FTP error while I was uploading files. Please wait till the IT guys set it right. Should be done by tomorrow.

    • Thank you, Reader…will surely visit…

      • Theres nothing new in it. You have read all of it before. In fact we have discussed quite a few in detail, remember?

        Except the new one on the blog page on the Rig Veda. I did that in the last two days when you and Sharmila went offline…

      • The draft is with the editors and designers.. you’ll be surprised to see the end product… nothing like you see on the blog or what I sent you!

        Missing Renate too… she was always curious to know…

      • Reader,

        I remember…

        Will read on and keep up with your book site as you update…

        Looking forward to the endproduct… Wish you all success.


      • Aishwarya,

        Where is your cell phone? Take the call.

      • Ishaaron ishaaron mein…:)

  39. Sharmila,

    Congrats! Your blog has received mention in the Forbes India magazine! Elated and happy for you.

    Havent seen you on the blog since the past 2 days…hope all is well…

    I have a suggestion to make if I may…

    The sign of a good book review is one that rises curiosity and motivates people to read the book. The interpretations and inferences that the readers make is bound to vary and is not the responsibility of the reviewer. But the readers may, in all enthusiasm, end up visiting not the very best sites to read/buy these books.

    So I was wondering if, at the end of each book review, a list of sites where the book could be read or purchased could be mentioned for the benefit of interested readers.

    Merry X’mas,


    • Thanks a lot Aish..Yes, I had got this info and picked up a copy of Forbes India..I thought only my twittername supershamz was mentioned for a follow because of my blogs, should check to see if the blog website was picked up too. Good idea, will try to get links if possible..Merry Xmas!!

  40. Aishwarya,

    0754: Sawaal yeh nahi hai ki kya mayn mina se mohabbat karta hun… sawaal yeh hai kya mayn mohabbat karta hun… iss duniya se bacchon se budhon se aurato se phulon se pattharon se…

    0940: Aap ek mashoor filmstar hai.. magar ek joker ki hasti ko nahin samaz sakte.. iss do tang ke awaara ko koi bediya nahin daal sakta.. … itna khayal rakhna kisi ko nayi zindagi dena badi zimmedari ka kaam hota hai…

    • Bhule se mohabbat kar baitha
      naadaan tha bechaara, dil hi to hai
      har dil se khata ho jaati hai
      bigado na khudaara, dil hi to hai…

  41. This is for Aishwarya,

  42. Aishwarya,

    Not the person. Not his aura. Not his masks. Not his roles. The ideals, the themes are the legacy.

  43. Aishwarya,

    I left that milestone back in April, 2003… I used to play the audio of this song on an international call while driving in the oil fields… I was a die-hard romantic.. and always died…

    • C’mon, no one dies romancing…and that which does not kill us makes us stronger…so watch out for the next milestone…good luck…:)

      • Thats something to remember: That which does not kill us makes us stronger…

        Its a trip through loco-land… There are Mad Hatters with a persecution complex… there are anxious Alices… and there are Cheshire cats, the dodos and the knave of hearts…

        Even if it does not kill, ones sure not come out any wiser if he opens that door again!

      • I dont know…does being wise mean not having a sense of adventure…no risks taken…wise sounds boring…I mean, we could actually have had a longer list…there are just 5 now…:P

      • Certainly we can have a longer list… but I cannot think of any hazard that is not already assessed by intelligent men… do you know any?

        Its a very interesting learning curve. Once a person reaches the plateau, the view appears monotonous but there is something liberating about it.

        I know, I know. Now you may feel theres something loony about me and you’ll be spot on.

        I’ll never get over some of the ideosynchracies that I have developed in the past 4 decades.

        Time sharing is not my idea of a relationship. I find it testing. I hate to be tested without my consent.

      • Cant say if all the hazards have been revealed by intelligent men…there’s a chance they might be thinking it would make them look silly to admit their experience…

        You are right… No one likes to be tested. I suppose that might have been what the ones on the list would have said too…we didnt want to be tested…AND labeled!

      • I know at least a thousand happy darwinian couples in the ME.

        Their joys means little to me but what amazes me is that the two thousand have two thousand different reasons for loving their partners. I guess if we multiply the number by a hundred more I’d get as many reasons.

        The mystery can never be solved.

      • Agreed…:)

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